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The difference between super capacitors and ordinary capacitors

by:GREEN TECH     2022-03-19

The specific differences and characteristics of super capacitors and ordinary capacitors:

1. It has a super large capacitance of Farad level, which is much larger than ordinary capacitance.

2. The power that can be released instantly is nearly ten times higher than that of ordinary batteries, and it will not be damaged.

3. The charging and discharging cycle life is more than 100,000 times, which is one of the great advantages. Traditional batteries can only be charged and discharged hundreds of times.

4. It can be used normally in the ambient temperature of 40 degrees to 60 degrees, and the performance of traditional batteries will be greatly reduced at low temperatures.

5. It has super charge retention ability, and the leakage is very small. The traditional battery needs to be changed frequently to keep the state.

6. Fast charging, its speed is dozens of times faster than ordinary batteries, and it can be fully charged for a car in a few minutes.

7. It will not pollute the environment, maintenance-free, while traditional batteries are still polluting.

But supercapacitors have the most fatal two disadvantages:

One is that its volume is relatively large, and its storage capacity is smaller than that of a battery of the same size.

The second is that even if it reaches farad-level power, it is still pitiful compared to traditional batteries. According to the current technology, it still cannot be used as the main power storage device for electric power, because its power can only drive the vehicle a few times. kilometer.

Supercapacitors have a much larger capacity than normal capacitors. Because of its large capacity, its external performance is the same as that of batteries, so it is also called a 'capacitor battery'.

Supercapacitors are electric double layer capacitors, which have the largest capacity among the electric double layer capacitors that have been put into mass production in the world. The basic principle is the same as other types of electric double layer capacitors, using activated carbon porous electrodes The electric double-layer structure composed of electrolyte and electrolyte achieves super-large capacity.

Characteristics of super capacitors:

(1) The charging speed is fast, charging for 10 seconds to 10 minutes can reach more than 95% of its rated capacity;

(2) Long cycle life, deep charge and discharge cycles can reach 10,000 to 500,000 times, and there is no 'memory effect';

(3) High current discharge capability, high energy conversion efficiency, small process loss, high current energy cycle efficiency ≥90%;

(4) High power density, up to 300W/KG~5000W/KG, equivalent to 5~10 times that of batteries;

(5) The raw material composition, production, use, storage and dismantling process of the product are all pollution-free, and it is an ideal green power source;

(6) The charging and discharging circuit is simple, no charging circuit like a rechargeable battery is needed, the safety factor is high, and the long-term use is maintenance-free;

(7) Good ultra-low temperature characteristics, wide temperature range -40℃~+70℃;

(8) The detection is convenient, and the remaining power can be directly readout;

(9) The capacity range is usually 0.1F--1000F.

Fara referred to as 'Fa

1 farad is when the capacitor stores 1 coulomb of electricity, the potential difference between the two plates is 1 volt 1Fu003d1C/1V

1 Coulomb is the amount of electricity transported by a 1A current in 1s, that is, 1Cu003d1A·S.

1 coulomb u003d 1 ampere second

1 farad u003d 1 ampere sec/volt

Make an analogy:

Battery (battery) 12V 14A discharge capacity u003d 14*3600/12u003d4200 Farads (F)

The capacitance value of the earth is only about 1-2F

Compared with batteries, super capacitors have the following characteristics:

a.Ultra-low series equivalent resistance, the power density is dozens of times that of lithium-ion batteries, suitable for high-current discharge, (a 4.7F capacitor can release more than 18A of instantaneous current).

b. Super long life, charging and discharging more than 500,000 times, which is 500 times that of batteries and 1,000 times that of Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries. If the super capacitor is charged and discharged 20 times a day, it can be used continuously for 68 times. year.

c. It can be charged with high current, short charging and discharging time, simple requirements for charging circuit, and no memory effect.

d. Maintenance-free, can be sealed.

e. Wide temperature range -40℃~+70℃, general battery is -20℃~60℃.

Ultracapacitors, previously primarily used in high-power power supplies and large industrial and consumer power equipment, are now finding their way into products of all sizes, especially portable devices. Ultracapacitors are known around the world for capacitance values u200bu200bin the thousands of farads and fast charge and discharge rates.

Supercapacitors behave more like batteries than standard capacitor due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy for long periods of time. In fact, as technology advances, they will replace rechargeable batteries in many products, from computers, digital cameras, cell phones and other handheld devices.

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