Supercapacitors have excellent pulse charge-discharge and large-capacity energy storage functions, and the single-unit capacity has now reached the 10,000-farad level. It is an energy storage element between electrostatic capacitors and batteries. Farad capacitors regard electric double layer supercapacitors as 2 inactive porous plates suspended in an electrolyte, and a voltage is applied to the 2 plates. The potential applied to the positive plate attracts negative ions in the electrolyte, and the negative plate attracts positive ions, thereby forming an electric double-layer capacitor on the surfaces of the two electrodes.
Fast charging. Supercapacitor charging is a physical process of charging and discharging the electric double layer or a fast and reversible chemical process on the surface of the electrode material. It can be charged with a large current and can complete the charging process within tens of seconds to several minutes, which is fast in the true sense. Charge.
The electrochemical reactions generated during the charging and discharging process of supercapacitors have excellent reversibility and are not prone to a series of life termination phenomena such as crystal form changes, shedding, and dendrites penetrating barriers similar to those of active materials in batteries. The theoretical cycle life of carbon electrode capacitors is infinite, and the actual cycle life can reach more than 100,000 times, which is 10 to 100 times higher than that of batteries.
Supercapacitors have high charge and discharge efficiency, have a certain ability to withstand overcharge and over-discharge, can be repeatedly charged and discharged stably, and theoretically do not require protection. Supercapacitors do not use heavy metals and other harmful chemicals in the production process and have a long life, so they are a new type of green power source.
However, the unreasonable installation position of supercapacitors can easily cause problems such as electrolyte leakage, which destroys the structure and function of capacitors. The use of supercapacitors is limited to DC circuits, because compared with aluminum electrolytic capacitors, the internal resistance of supercapacitors is larger, which is not suitable for the operational requirements of AC circuits. From a physical point of view, supercapacitors have the characteristics of short charging time, long-running time, good temperature control effect, and strong environmental protection functions.